🔥 USA - Flap/slat actuation system for an aircraft - Google Patents

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The problem of providing a flight control panel actuation system, including asymmetry brakes, which will fit into aircraft wings having narrow.


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Slat Actuator Interview #2

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The slat extended as a result of a broken slat actuator support fitting. The aircraft in question was equipped with a different slat actuator than the one found on.


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Slat Actuator Interview

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The problem of providing a flight control panel actuation system, including asymmetry brakes, which will fit into aircraft wings having narrow.


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FLAPS and SLATS (swift air bridge class) #B737!

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To prevent asymmetry, actuation systems for flaps and slats often include a device known as an asymmetry brake which engages to hold the chain of actuators and.


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Flaps Slats Speed brakes and Spoilers explained

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actuators. These actuators rotate the inboard cable drive drum to extend or retract The autoslat system electrical actuator moves the outboard slat control valve.


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LEADING EDGE OR DROOP, KRUEGER FLAPS, SLATS.

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The slat extended as a result of a broken slat actuator support fitting. The aircraft in question was equipped with a different slat actuator than the one found on.


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Boeing 737 Flaps extension and retraction

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actuators. These actuators rotate the inboard cable drive drum to extend or retract The autoslat system electrical actuator moves the outboard slat control valve.


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Hog Slat's Linear Vent Actuator

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To prevent asymmetry, actuation systems for flaps and slats often include a device known as an asymmetry brake which engages to hold the chain of actuators and.


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737 Slat, Slot, Flaps, and wheel well

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When you remove LE Slat actuator (in my case- #1 and #8) and obey AMM instructions, at the moment when you disconnect rod from the slat and manually.


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How do flaps work on an aircraft?

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The problem of providing a flight control panel actuation system, including asymmetry brakes, which will fit into aircraft wings having narrow.


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Flap Slat Actuator

Our invention provides such an actuation system by positioning the asymmetry brakes inboard of the outermost actuator in each wing, rather than outboard of the outermost actuator as has historically been done in prior aircraft flight control panel actuation systems. Of particular concern are problems which cause the position of the flaps or slats on one wing to lose synchronization with the flaps and slats on the other wing of the aircraft. The ball spline is configured to significantly reduce the internal friction load which the electrical solenoid must overcome to apply or release the brake, resulting in a smaller physical size and current draw of the solenoid. For aircraft currently being designed, however, there is a strong desire to use supercritical airfoil shapes for the wings to minimize fuel consumption. With this arrangement, the actuator equipped with the stops functions as a master actuator, and limits the travel of all other "slave" actuators in the same driveline by virtue of the operable connection between the master and slave actuators provided by the driveline. By configuring the ball spline and jaw clutch to function as shock absorbers in addition to performing their primary functions, the need for separate elastomeric shock absorbers, etc. The supercritical wings of one such aircraft are so narrow at their tips, in fact, that there is not enough space within the wing tip for mounting an asymmetry brake outboard of the outermost actuator, as has historically been done in prior flight control panel actuation systems. Further objects of our invention include providing:. Thus performance of the asymmetry brakes 46, 48 is substantially identical when operating with either control unit 68, The asymmetry brakes 46, 48 must actuate virtually instantaneously if commended to do so by the control units 68, 70, in order to prevent an unacceptable asymmetry brake 46, 48 depicted in FIG. The electrical solenoid utilizes a pair of strategically shaped and located conical surfaces on the plunger and electromagnetic core of the solenoid to provide an optimal balance between actuation force, stroke, and current draw, by placing the conical surfaces in such a manner that both the primary magnetic flux and the leakage flux generated by the electromagnetic coils combine and contribute to generating the actuation force exerted by the electrical solenoid. The intermediate actuators 50 in the flap system 20 do not include integral no-back devices. The new asymmetry brake developed for use in our system is described in greater detail in a co-pending patent application, application Ser. Each of the slats and flaps is operably attached in a conventional manner to its respective wing in a manner allowing it to move by extending or retracting relative to its respective wing. The left outermost flap actuator 30 is operably connected between the left wing 16 and the left outboard flap 24a of the left wing 16 for moving the left outboard flap 24a relative to the left wing 16 when a driving torque is applied to the rotatable input 32 of the left outermost flap actuator Flap power drive means, generally indicated at 34, are operably connected between the rotatable inputs 28, 32 of the right and left outermost flap actuators 26, 30 for providing driving torque; simultaneously to the inputs 28, 32 of the actuators 26, 30 for symmetrically positioning the right and left flaps 24a-f, relative to the right and left wings 14, 16 respectively. Rotary power applied to the input 28, 32 of the actuator 26, 30 is converted into rotation of a ballscrew 78 by action of an intermediate shaft 99 and gear sets 76 and Rotation of the ballscrew 78 is converted into translating motions of the ball nut 74 by action of the recirculating ball mechanism 84 of the ball nut 74 for moving the ball nut 74 between a retracted position 80 and an extended position The outmost flap actuators 26, 30 of the exemplary embodiment of our invention depicted in FIG. There are three flaps disposed at the trailing edge of each wing designated in order of their proximity to the center line as the inboard flaps 24c, d, the middle flaps 24b, e, and the outboard flaps 24a, f of the left and right wings 16, 14 respectively.

Aircraft wings often click a series of movable flight learn more here panels, known as flaps or slats, as shown in FIG.

The outermost flap actuators 26, 30 of the exemplary embodiment also include https://video-skachay.fun/bonus/online-casino-no-bonus.html of travel stops 90, 92 for limiting the travel of the ball nut 74 to a minimum and a maximum extension respectively of the actuator 26, As shown in FIG.

The no-back device 88 is included in the flap control system 20 of the exemplary embodiment because the outboard flaps 24f, a of the aircraft 10 of the exemplary embodiment exert such a strong effect on the lift producing slat actuator of the wings 14, 16 that the remainder of the control panels on the aircraft cannot compensate for any significant amount of asymmetry between the outboard flaps 24f, 24a.

It has been standard practice for many years, therefore, to include asymmetry brakes at the outboard end of the chain of actuators and shafts, as shown in FIG.

Specifically, the left flap asymmetry brake 48 is located immediately inboard of the left outermost flap actuator 30, and operably attached to the rotatable input 32 of the left outermost flap actuator The right and left inboard and middle flaps 24d, e; 24c, source are each operably connected to the right and left wings 14, 16 slat actuator, by two of the intermediate flap actuators The right and left outboard flaps 24f, 24a are each respectively operably connected to the right and left wings 14, 16 by one of the intermediate flap actuators 50 and the right or left outermost flap actuators 26, Between the flap PDU 36 and the innermost right and left intermediate flap actuators 54, 56 the right and left drivelines 40, 44, respectively, each include a series of torque tubes 58 and angle gearboxes 60 for transmitting driving torque from slat actuator flap PDU 36 to the remainder of the right and left drivelines 40, Redundant flap control means 66 are operably connected between the flaps and the right and left flap asymmetry brakes 46, 48 for sensing an asymmetry between the positions of the right flaps 24d, e, f, relative to the left flaps 24c, b, a, and for engaging the flap asymmetry brakes 46, 48 when the asymmetry between the positions of the right and left flaps 24d, e, f; 24c, b, a exceeds a pre-determined maximum allowable value.

The right outermost slat check this out is operably connected between the right wing 14 and the right outboard slat 22h of the right wing 14 for moving the right outboard slat 22h relative to the right wing 14 when driving torque is applied to the rotatable input of the right outermost slat actuator The slat actuation system 18 also includes a left outermost slat actuator having a rotatable input for receiving a driving torque.

Specifically, the right flap asymmetry brake 46 is located immediately inboard of the slat actuator outermost flap actuator 26 and operably connected to the rotatable input 28 of the right outermost flap actuator The left driveline portion 44 of the flap power drive means 34 includes a selectively engagable left flap asymmetry brake 48 disposed in the left driveline 44 between the flap PDU 36 and the left outermost flap actuator 30, for stopping rotation of the left driveline 44 when the left flap asymmetry brake 48 is engaged.

Specifically, the left slat asymmetry brake is located immediately inboard of the left outermost slat actuatorand operably attached to the rotatable input of the left outermost slat actuator The right and left inboard and middle slats 22e, d; 22f, g; 22c, b are each operably connected to the right and left wings 14, 16 respectively, by two of the intermediate slat actuators The right and left outboard slats 22h, 22a are each respectively operably connected to the right and left wings 14, 16 by one of the intermediate slat actuators and the right or left outermost slat actuators Between the slat PDU and the innermost right and left intermediate slat actuatorsthe right and left drivelines, respectively, each include a series of torque tubes and angle gearboxes for transmitting driving torque from the slat PDU to the remainder of the right and left drivelines

This arrangement was selected for sake of convenience in this particular application, but in other applications other drive arrangements other types of sensors, or alternate sensor locations, could also be used with equal facility. Drain passages and a coating that is resistant to retention of a condensate thereupon applied to the conical surfaces of the solenoid provide a mechanism for insuring that fluid condensing on the conical surfaces does not inhibit operation of the electrical solenoid. Furthermore, there is a longstanding belief by those having skill in the art that where asymmetry brakes were used, they had to be positioned outboard of the last actuator in the chain in order to be effective. These actuators 26, 30 include an apertured ear 72 at one end thereof for attachment to the right or left wing 14, 16, and a translating ball nut 74 thereof adapted for attachment to one of the outboard flaps 24f, 24a. In some embodiments of our invention, the outermost actuator includes an integral no-back to hold that actuator against further movement, should the driveline connection between the asymmetry brake and the actuator be severed. Each of the wings 14, 16 include multiple flight control panels in the form of slats 22a-h, and flaps 24a-f. Without some means, such as an asymmetry brake at the outboard end of the chain of actuators and shafts, for holding the flaps or slats downstream from the broken shaft against further movement, aerodynamic loads acting upon the flaps or slats could move them to an uncommanded position which would create serious flight control problems for the aircraft. A bifilar winding within the electrical solenoid provides a substantially identical amount of actuation force for a given stroke and current draw, when the bifilar winding is provided with electrical current from either of two independent sources of electrical current. Specifically, there are four slats disposed along the leading edge of each wing, the slats being designated in order of their proximity to the center line 12 as the inboard slats 22d,e, the first middle slats 22c,f, the second middle slats 22b,g, and the outboard slats 22a,h, of the left and right wings 16, 14 respectively. The slat control actuation system 18 includes a right outermost slat actuator having a rotatable input for receiving a driving torque. In other applications of our invention, such as the slat control actuation system 18 of the exemplary embodiment described below, wherein asymmetry between control panels on opposite sides of the aircraft or even loss of one of the control panels can be compensated for, by using other control panels on the aircraft, the no-back device 88 may not be required. Adjacent actuators are connected to each other by drive shafts, to in essence form a chain of actuators and shafts extending along the span of the wing. As will be readily apparent from these patents, actuation systems for critical aircraft flight control surfaces, such as flaps and slats, are designed to have a high degree of redundancy for monitoring and reacting to problems which could lead to asymmetry. Because control surfaces such as flaps or slats significantly alter the lift producing characteristics of the wings, it is critical for safe operation of the aircraft that the actuation system also include safety features for detecting and reacting to problems such as jamming, or failure of one of the actuators or drive shafts in the aircraft flight control system. The resulting wings are very narrow, making it difficult to mount an actuation system of typical construction inside of the wing. The right outermost flap actuator 26 is operably connected between the right wing 14 and the right outboard flap 24f of the right wing 14 for moving the right outboard flap 24f relative to the right wing 14 when driving torque is applied to the rotatable input 28 of the right outermost flap actuator The flap actuation system 20 also includes a left outermost flap actuator 30 having a rotatable input 32 for receiving a driving torque. For example, should one of the shafts connecting adjacent actuators break, the PDU would not be able to control the position of flaps or slats outboard of the broken shaft. The slave actuators of our system therefore are more readily fitted into supercritical wings than intermediate actuators of prior systems which historically required that end of travel stops large enough to stop the entire driveline be built into every actuator in the driveline. Extension and retraction of such flaps or slats is accomplished by a flight control actuation system mounted in the wing. The integral force limiter and flap PDU 36 are sized relative to one another such that when the integral force limiter 86 actuates, it applies sufficient braking force to the drive means 34 to stall the PDU 36 and prevent further rotation of the drivelines 40, The force limiter 86 of the actuators 26, 30 depicted in FIG. Such a condition is referred to as asymmetry. According to another aspect of our invention, all actuators in a given driveline of the actuation system may be equipped with integral force limiters to lock the driveline against further rotation, should the driveline or one of the control panels become jammed. The integral force limiter 86 is configured to lock the flap power drive means 34 if the force being transmitted through the actuator 26, 30 exceeds a pre-determined value, to prevent damage to the flap actuator system 20 should a problem such as jamming of one of the flaps occur. The intermediate flap actuator 50 also includes an integral force limiter having a construction and function similar to that previously described above with respect to the outermost flap actuators 26, End of travel stops , are also provided to limit the travel of the ballscrew 96 of the intermediate actuators 50 for a movement between a minimum and maximum extended position thereof. The no-back device 88 depicted in FIG. It was, therefore, necessary to develop a new, more compact, and very powerful asymmetry brake for use in our new flight control panel actuation system. With this arrangement, the slave actuators may be made physically smaller because they are not required to react loads incident with limiting end of travel. Specifically, the slat power drive means includes a slat power drive unit PDU having a first output operably connected by a right driveline portion of the power drive means to the right outermost slat actuator , and further having a second output operably connected by a left driveline portion of the slat power drive means to the left outermost slat actuator The right driveline portion of the slat power drive means includes a selectively engagable right slat asymmetry brake disposed between the slat PDU and the right outermost slat actuator for stopping rotation of the right driveline when the right slat asymmetry brake is engaged. The flap control actuation system 20 includes a right outermost flap actuator 26 having a rotatable input 28 for receiving a driving torque. The housings 94 of the intermediate flap actuators 50 are attached to the right and left wings 14, 16 by means not shown , and are connected to the flaps 24a-f by means of an apertured end 97 of the ballscrew In the intermediate flap actuators 50, the ball nut 98 is located within the housing 94 and is rotated by action of a gear set operably connected between the input of the actuator 50 and the ball nut Rotation of the ball nut 98 is converted into translating motion of the ballscrew 96 through action of the recirculating ball nut mechanism , in a manner well known to those having skill in the art. Even with the asymmetry brakes repositioned inboard of the outermost actuators, however, there was still insufficient space within the supercritical wings of the aircraft described above to house an asymmetry brake of any known prior construction at the new location. The flap control means 66 includes right and left angular position sensors in the form of resolvers 62, 64 operably connected respectively to the right and left outermost flap actuators 26, 30 for sensing an angular position of the rotatable inputs 28, 32 of the outermost flap actuators 26, As shown in FIGS. The particular type of no-back device illustrated in FIG. A power drive unit PDU connected to the inboard end of the chain provides motive power for driving the actuators to selectively extend or retract the flight control surfaces. In other applications of our invention, it may be desirable to have a bidirectional no-back device where loading on the particular control panel connected to the outermost actuator can be bidirectional. The left outermost slat actuator is operably connected between the left wing 16 and the left outboard slat 22a of the left wing 16 for moving the left outboard slat 22a 5relative to the left wing 16 when a driving torque is applied to the rotatable input of the left outermost slat actuator Slat power drive means, generally indicated at , are operably connected between the rotatable inputs , of the right and left outermost slat actuators , for providing driving torque simultaneously to the inputs , of the actuators , for symmetrically positioning the right and left outboard slats 22h, 22a relative to the right and left wings 14, 16 respectively. A typical actuation system includes a series of actuators spaced along the span of each wing, and operably connected to move one or more individual flight control panels. The new brake utilizes a jaw type clutch coupled to an electrical solenoid through a ball spline mechanism to provide significantly greater braking capacity in a given volume than other types of braking devices. In the flap control actuation system, the end of travel stops 90, 92 on the left and right outermost actuators 26, 30 are positioned to engage before the end of travel stops , on any of the intermediate flap actuators As a result, the outermost flap actuators 26, 30 act as master end of travel stops for the entire flap control actuation system 20, and the intermediate flap actuators 50 function as slave actuators with the outermost flap actuators 26, 30 providing end of travel protection for all intermediate flap actuators The asymmetry brake depicted in FIG. Accordingly, it is an object of our invention to provide a flight control panel actuation system, including asymmetry brakes, which will fit into wings having narrow supercritical airfoil shapes, and yet provide a degree of safety with regard to preventing asymmetry which is as good or better than that provided by prior actuation systems. To prevent asymmetry, actuation systems for flaps and slats often include a device known as an asymmetry brake which engages to hold the chain of actuators and shafts in a known position, should a problem occur in the actuation system that cannot be corrected through use of the PDU alone. According to yet another aspect of our invention, only the outermost, or alternatively only the innermost actuator in one of the drivelines can be equipped with end of travel stops. Specifically, the flap power drive means 34 includes a flap power drive unit PDU 36 having a first output 38 operably connected by a right driveline portion 40 of the power drive means 34 to the right outermost flap actuator 26, and further having a second output 42 operably connected by a left driveline portion 44 of the power drive means 34 to the left outermost flap actuator The right driveline portion 40 of the flap power drive means 34 includes a selectively engagable right flap asymmetry brake 46 disposed between the flap PDU 36 and the right outermost flap actuator 26 for stopping rotation of the right driveline 40 when the right flap asymmetry brake 46 is engaged. Specifically, the right slat asymmetry brake is located immediately inboard of the right outermost slat actuator and operably connected to the rotatable input of the right outermost slat actuator The left driveline portion of the slat power drive means includes a selectively engagable left slat asymmetry brake disposed in the left driveline between the slat PDU and the left outermost slat actuator , for stopping rotation of the left driveline when the left slat asymmetry brake is engaged. Each asymmetry brake 46, 48 is capable of holding the flaps in a given position against the full torque output of the flap PDU A spring provides a biasing force urging the clutch to be normally engaged. The jaw clutch and ball spline are also configured to reduce or absorb shock loads on various internal components of the braking apparatus when the brake is engaged. These and other aspects and advantages of our invention will be apparent to those having skill in the art upon consideration of the following drawing figures and detailed description of the exemplary embodiments of our invention. The integral no-back device 88 of the outermost flap actuators 26, 30 of the exemplary embodiment depicted in FIG.